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Neurogenetics and Nutrigenomics of Neuro-Nutrient Therapy for Reward Deficient Syndrome (RDS)_Clinical Ramifications as a Function of Molecular Neurobiological Mechanisms

Published in final edited form as:

J Addict Res Ther. ; 3(5): 139–. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.1000139.

August 5, 2013

Kenneth Blum1,5,6,8,10,11,12,15,*, Marlene Oscar-Berman2, Elizabeth Stuller3, David Miller4,5,

John Giordano6, Siobhan Morse6, Lee McCormick7, William B Downs5, Roger L Waite5,

Debmalya Barh8, Dennis Neal9, Eric R Braverman1,10, Raquel Lohmann10, Joan Borsten11,

Mary Hauser12, David Han13, Yijun Liu1, Manya Helman14, and Thomas Simpatico15

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, McKnight Brain Institute, Gainesville, Fl, 100183,


2Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Anatomy & Neurobiology, Boston University of

School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA

3Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, MD and Amen Clinics, Baltimore, MD, 21202, USA

4LifeStream, Inc. St. Louis, MO, 63390, USA

5Department of Nutrigenomic, LifeGen, Inc. San Diego, CA, 92101, USA

6Department of Holistic Medicine, G&G Holistic Addiction Treatment Center, North Miami Beach,

Fl, 33162, USA

7Integrative Life Center of Nashville, Tennessee, 37221, USA

8Center for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and applied

Biotechnology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purbe Medinpur, West Bengal, 721172, India

9Northwest Resources, Olympia, Washington, 98502, USA

10Path Foundation NY, New York, 10001, New York USA

11Malibu Beach Recovery Center, Malibu Beach, California, 9026, USA

12Dominion Diagnostics, North Kingstown Rhode Island, 02852, USA

13Department of Management Science and Statistics, University of Texas at San Antonio, San

Antonio, Texas, 78230, USA

14Medical Director for Marion County Methadone Clinic, Salem Oregon, 97301 USA

15Global Integrated Services Unit University of Vermont Center for Clinical & Translational

Science, College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USA




In accord with the new definition of addiction published by American Society of Addiction

Medicine (ASAM) it is well-known that individuals who present to a treatment center involved in

chemical dependency or other documented reward dependence behaviors have impaired brain

reward circuitry. They have hypodopaminergic function due to genetic and/or environmental

negative pressures upon the reward neuro-circuitry. This impairment leads to aberrant craving

behavior and other behaviors such as Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Neurogenetic research in

both animal and humans revealed that there is a well-defined cascade in the reward site of the

brain that leads to normal dopamine release. This cascade has been termed the “Brain Reward

Cascade” (BRC). Any impairment due to either genetics or environmental influences on this

cascade will result in a reduced amount of dopamine release in the brain reward site. Manipulation

of the BRC has been successfully achieved with neuro-nutrient therapy utilizing nutrigenomic

principles. After over four decades of development, neuro-nutrient therapy has provided important

clinical benefits when appropriately utilized. This is a review, with some illustrative case histories

from a number of addiction professionals, of certain molecular neurobiological mechanisms which

if ignored may lead to clinical complications.

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